Before the turn of the 19th century, most of the art which was created was commissioned either by the wealthy or by churches and other institutions, because art was too expensive to produce "just for the fun of it." Not too long after, artists started to create works of art which were based on personal experiences or whatever topic they saw fit.
Modern art includes artistic works (painting, sculptures and drawings) that were created between 1880 and 1970, all of which are in keeping with the Industrialist style and modern advancements made during that time.
Some of the most popular works of art can now be found at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, the Art Institute of Chicago and the National Gallery in London. Famous pieces include "Starry Night," "Impression Sunrise," "The Scream," "The Persistence of Memory" and "Self-portrait without Beard," all of which are worth millions today.
How well do you know your modern art? You should be able to identify the work done by Renoir, Monet, Picasso and van Gogh, but what about Munch, Cézanne and Gauguin? If you would like to test your knowledge, then this is definitely the quiz for you.
"The Starry Night" is an oil on canvas which was painted by Vincent van Gogh in 1889. It was said to depict the view from his room while staying at an asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. The art was permanently added to the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1941.
"Bal du moulin de la Galette," also known as the "Dance at le Moulin de la Galette," is an oil on canvas painting by the French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir, completed in 1876. Housed permanently at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, it is one the artist’s most celebrated works.
"Impression, Sunrise" is an oil on canvas painting which was painted by artist Claude Monet in 1874. Located at the Musée Marmottan Monet in Paris, it depicts the port of the French urban commune of Le Havre, the hometown of the artist.
"Guernica" is an oil on canvas painting which was created by artist Pablo Picasso and completed in 1937. Currently on display at the Museo Reina Sofia in Madrid, the 11.5-foot-tall anti-war painting features a black, white and grey palette, making it more dynamic.
In 1899, French artist Claude Monet created the oil on canvas painting called "Water Lilies and Japanese Bridge." It is a part of a series of paintings, all showing the same view in different lighting and weather.
1931's "The Persistence of Memory" is an oil on canvas painting and one of the most recognized works by artist Salvador Dalí. Often incorrectly referred to as ”Melting Clocks,” it is one of the most recognizable works of art in the world. It is on permanent display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
"Three Musicians" is the name of two similar oil paintings created by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso in 1921. Each of the paintings features a Pierrot, a monk and a Harlequin, often believed to represent playwright Guillaume Apollinaire, poet Max Jacob and Picasso himself, respectively.
"The Lady of Shalott" is an oil on canvas painting by artist John William Waterhouse, which was based on Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s poem with the same name. The artist painted three different versions, the first of which was in 1888.
"Full Fathom Five" is a drip painting which was created by artist Jackson Pollock in 1947. Currently housed at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the painting contains a wide assortment of items embedded into the surface, including buttons, coins, keys, cigarette butts, and nails.
"A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte" is an 1884 oil on canvas painting created by Georges Seurat. The painting, which shows Parisians at a park near the River Seine, is on display at the Art Institute of Chicago.
"Whistler’s Mother," whose formal name is "Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1," is an oil on canvas painting created by James McNeill Whistler in 1871. Currently on display at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, the subject of the painting is the artist’s mother – Anna McNeill Whistler.
"Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow" is an abstract oil and paper on canvas painting by artist Piet Mondrian. The painting consists of geometric figures of the colors in the name, as well as varying sizes of black brushwork. Today, it can be found at the National Museum in Belgrade, Serbia.
"The Potato Eaters" is an oil on canvas painting which was finished by artist Vincent van Gogh in 1885. The original painting can be found in the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam.
"Self-portrait Without Beard" is an oil on canvas painting, which was painted by artist Vincent van Gogh in 1889. Sold for just over $71 million sometime in the 1990s, this is one of the artist’s most famous works, perhaps also the final self-portrait done by Van Gogh.
"The Gleaners," also called "Des glaneuses," is an oil on canvas painting which was created by Jean-François Millet in 1857. The 33-inch by 44-inch painting depicts three female peasants gleaning a field of stray stalks of wheat, soon after the harvest.
"The Kiss," also called "Liebespaar, Lovers," is an oil painting which was completed by Austrian artist Gustav Klimt in 1908. Currently found in the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere museum in Vienna, the painting portrays two lovers embracing.
"The Sleeping Gypsy" is an oil painting by French artist Henri Rousseau in 1897. Currently located at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the 4-foot, 3-inch by 6-foot, 7-inch painting features a lion musing over a sleeping woman on the night of a full moon.
"The Red Balloon" is a chalk painting which was created by Paul Klee in 1922. Known for his cubist technique, the artist features a red circular balloon floating in the top of the image. This work is now located at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York.
"Luncheon of the Boating Party" is an oil on canvas painting which was created by French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir in 1881. Currently housed at The Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., the painting depicts a group of the artist’s friends relaxing on a river on a balcony near the Seine River in France.
"The Flower Carrier," also known as "Cargador de Flores," is a painting which was created by Diego Rivera in 1935. Currently on display at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the painting portrays the struggle of workers in a modern, capitalistic world.
"American Gothic" is an oil on beaver board painting which was created by artist Grant Wood in 1930. The painting portrays a farmer holding a pitchfork with a woman standing next to him. The people in the photo were the artist’s sister (Nan Wood Graham) and their dentist.
"Café Terrace at Night," also known as "Coffeehouse, in the Evening," is an oil on canvas painting which was created by the Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh in 1888. The painting was inspired by a café in Arles, France.
"The Son of Man," also called "Le fils de l’homme" in French, is an oil on canvas painting by Belgian artist René Magritte. Completed in 1964, the painting is a self-portrait which consists of a man wearing an overcoat and bowler hat, whose face is covered by a hovering green apple.
"A Bar at the Folies-Bergère" is an 1882 painting created by the French artist Édouard Manet. Often called the last major work of the artist, the painting depicts a scene inside the Folies Bergère nightclub in Paris, France. The painting can now be found at the Courtauld Gallery in London.
"No. 5, 1948" is an oil on fiberboard painting created by American painter Jackson Pollock in the year it was named after, 1948. Part of the abstract expressionist movement, the painting was sold for $140 million to a private collector in New York.
"Le Boulevard de Montmartre, Matinée de Printemps" is an oil on canvas painting of the Boulevard Montmartre in Paris. Created by French artist Camille Pissarro in 1897, the piece was actioned off in 2014 for approximately $32 million and is currently housed in a private collection.
"Dogs Playing Poker" refers to a collective group of paintings by Cassius Marcellus Coolidge, originally for commercial purposes. All 16 of the paintings feature anthropomorphized dogs, most of which are seated around a table playing poker.
"The Great Wave off Kanagawa," also known as "The Great Wave," is a color woodblock work of art created by artist Katsushika Hokusai. It was part of the "Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji" series.
"Almond Blossoms" is an oil on canvas painting belonging to a group of paintings created by artist Vincent van Gogh. Flowering trees were said to be special to the artist, and the blossoming of the almond tree represents awakening and hope. The painting is currently housed at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam.
"Campbell’s Soup Cans," also referred to as "32 Campbell’s Soup Cans," is a synthetic paint on canvas work of art created by Andy Warhol in 1962. The painting, which consists of 32 cans of Campbell’s Soup, each one a different variety, can be seen at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
"Irises" is the name of many paintings in a series done by Vincent van Gogh, shortly before his death in 1890. The inspiration for the painting was the garden at the Saint Paul-de-Mausole Asylum, to which he was admitted in 1889.
"Sunflowers "is the name given to two series of paintings by Vincent van Gogh. The first series, which was created in 1887, showed the flowers laying on the ground, while the second series, which was created a year later, shows the flowers in a vase. The most popular of both series can be found at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam.
"Gold Marilyn Monroe" is a painting by Andy Warhol, which was inspired by a publicity photo for the movie "Niagara" in 1953. The ink on canvas painting was created in 1962, the year of the actress’s death, and is currently featured at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.